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There are several ways to change the feel of your favorite PC game by employing the methods detailed above. While the results can vary by game, it is important to try these options if you are unsatisfied with the latency associated with default settings. One thing is clear, however: the absolute best way to reduce input latency while keeping a tear-free image is to acquire a G-SYNC or FreeSync display. For those on a budget, be sure to try the tweaks listed above and report your experiences in the comments below!


The upshot of this is that unless you are really, really good at writing it (a skill which can take decades to master), C++ will require hours (or weeks) of debugging. And, as anyone who has tried to debug a Monte Carlo engine or PDE solver will tell you, trying to debug memory access at a fundamental level can be extremely time consuming. One broken pointer alone can easily crash an entire system, so shipping a new version written in C++ can be truly terrifying.

As for the massive development costs, without measurements your point is basically useless. When using a system level programming languages, you gain more control and in turn will lower costs of other things around it. Any experienced C++ developper can quickly setup a dev env with a build system and a package manager. When agreeing on a structure, developpement is usually pretty smooth. If it was not possible, game companies would be out of business because it seem to be impossible to implement things in C++ in any considerable timeline.

Saying that developing in C++ is extremely long as a broad statement is simply disinformation and intentionally harmful. I might as well say your java application will be slow to develop because it took years to make Minecraft playable and they made the bedrock edition in less time and is more performant. But of course, such argument is a sophist.

The biggest drawback of using extrapolation is that player's movements are not very ballistic, but instead are very non-deterministic and subject to high jerk5. Layer on top of this the unrealistic player physics models that most FPS games use, where player's can turn instantaneously and apply unrealistic forces to create huge accelerations at arbitrary angles and you'll see that the extrapolation is quite often incorrect. The developer can mitigate the error by limiting the extrapolation time to a reasonable value (QuakeWorld, for instance, limited extrapolation to 100 milliseconds). This limitation helps because, once the true player position is finally received, there will be a limited amount of corrective warping. In a world where most players still have greater than 150 milliseconds of latency, the player must still lead other players in order to hit them. If those players are "warping" to new spots because of extrapolation errors, then the gameplay suffers nonetheless.

For instance, if a highly lagged player shoots at a less lagged player and scores a hit, it can appear to the less lagged player that the lagged player has somehow "shot around a corner"10. In this case, the lower lag player may have darted around a corner. But the lagged player is seeing everything in the past. To the lagged player, s/he has a direct line of sight to the other player. The player lines up the crosshairs and presses the fire button. In the meantime, the low lag player has run around a corner and maybe even crouched behind a crate. If the high lag player is sufficiently lagged, say 500 milliseconds or so, this scenario is quite possible. Then, when the lagged player's user command arrives at the server, the hiding player is transported backward in time and is hit. This is the extreme case, and in this case, the low ping player says that s/he was shot from around the corner. However, from the lagged player's point of view, they lined up their crosshairs on the other player and fired a direct hit. From a game design point of view, the decision for us was easy: let each individual player have completely responsive interaction with the world and his or her weapons.

The Camera Inertia setting plays a large role in causing input delay because it forces the camera to continue panning after the stick is moved. Not only will movements feel delayed, but the camera will keep moving for a split second after an input is made. The game will look better, but at the cost of accurate controls. For those reasons, Camera Inertia should be set to 0. On the other Hand, Boost Multiplier will reduce movement and camera lag by increasing the responsiveness of the camera to slight stick adjustments. Boost Multiplier should be set to 400%.

Other factors include internet connection and console settings. Wired connections are always better than wireless connections for those that have the option. On both Xbox and PS, there are settings that can reduce video resolution to take advantage of higher hertz and FPS. Anyone that is playing on 1440p may want to consider downgrading pixels to 1080p for a potential boost to frames and hertz. Rust was developed in 2013, and the updated graphics are not going to be stunning even with the best console setup. More frames and more hertz will give players more control.

As raw data cannot be transferred wirelessly, the audio data is converted into a format that is compatible with Bluetooth transmission. It is often compressed, so the data transfer takes less time (the lower the size of data, the faster the data is transferred). The data is then transmitted to the Bluetooth earphones, where it must be converted into an analog audio signal first, and only then can it be played. All of this takes time, and even though we're talking milliseconds here, these additional steps can delay the process and thus increase the lag you experience when you use Bluetooth earbuds.

Bluetooth version: Just like codec, the Bluetooth version also plays an important role. It's important that the Bluetooth version of both of your devices (the source and the receiver) matches. Otherwise, you will only be able to use the features of whichever Bluetooth version is lower. For example, if your smartphone features Bluetooth 5.2, but your wireless earphones only support Bluetooth 5.0, then you will only be able to make use of the features of Bluetooth 5.0 (since it is lower out of the two).

Bluetooth 5.0 isn't new. However, we still haven't switched to all devices with Bluetooth 5.0. One of the reasons why we recommend you to use a Bluetooth 5.0 (and above) device is that the latest Bluetooth introduces a new technique to minimize audio lag called audio-video sync (or A/V sync). This technology allows your smartphone (or the device you're watching the video on) to estimate the amount of latency of your setup and adds that delay to the video playing on-screen. This way, it doesn't necessarily remove the lag, but it makes sure that the video and audio are aligned. However, it's also worth noting that audio-video sync is useless for things such as gaming because these applications are interactive and happen in real-time.

To extract extra battery life out of our devices, we often use the battery-saving option on our smartphones and other computing devices. However, using these options can increase the audio delay as these power-saving modes (more often than not) lower the processing power of your device. To make sure you experience the minimum delay, disable the power-saving mode on your device before connecting it to a Bluetooth headphone.

The whole process of converting audio data into a signal, transmitting, and decoding will always be there, and it will cause some sort of delay. Moreover, most of the audio accessory makers now like to offer true wireless earbuds, which have an extra lag to make sure that the left and right earbuds are in sync. Currently, there's no way to eliminate Bluetooth audio lag completely, but there are plenty of ways of minimizing it (given above).

For a more complete measure of your speed, test to other servers in various locations. Many sites and streaming services may host their content on servers that are far away from your current location, which could translate to slower speeds and pings from those services.

Since latency contributes to the time delay between request and response, it has a strong effect on user satisfaction and application usability, often with a direct impact on businesses. For example, Amazon found that every 100ms of latency cost them 1% in sales. Google found that an extra .5 seconds in search page generation time reduce traffic by 20%.

API latency is the time the data spends in transit between computers. That time has a lot to do with the physical distance between computers, the bandwidth, and the connection quality. Response Time includes latency, of course, but it also includes the time that the server takes to fulfill the request. The response time of an API can be measured from the client and averaged to compute an average response time latency. To measure network latency from the client side, ping an endpoint to eliminate the processing time delay. Subtracting the average ping response time from the average response time gives the average processing time.

At the level of transcription elongation, stimulation of LTR requires the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) complex that comprises cyclin T1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9) [128,129,130]. CDK9 promotes serine 2 phosphorylation of the C-terminal domain of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, an event that coupled with phosphorylation of the C-terminal domain at serine 5 by the TFIIH kinase and phosphorylation of negative transcription elongation factor (N-TEF) determines the transition from the initiation to the elongation stage of transcription [131,132]. P-TEFb is sequestered in large catalytically repressed, ribonucleoprotein complex (RNP) comprising 7SK RNA and 7SK binding proteins as EXIM-1 or HEXIM-2, 7SK methylphosphate capping enzyme (MePCE) and La ribonucleoprotein domain family, member-7 (LARP7) [133,134,135,136]. Recently, and in contrast to what previously observed in dividing cells, it has been reported that, in resting CD4+ T cells, naïve or memory, and independent of their infection status, Cyclin T1 and T-loop-phosphorylated CDK9, are expressed at low levels and increase upon activation [137]. Thus, beside activation, P-TEFb availability may be determined by the differential expression of its subunits. Nevertheless, whatever is the mechanism of P-TEFb unavailability, its activity has to be recovered and the factor has to be recruited to LTR to overcome paused RNA polymerase II complex associated with the latent LTR promoter (Figure 3). 041b061a72


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